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FCMs Chemicals sectors and intermediate materials – Part 2

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The information in the article is the continuation of the previous part of FCMs chemicals sectors and intermediate materials as detailed as each of the individual sectors, including volumes and values and distribution of the different types of businesses. The information is interpreted with some caution as the diversity of the different information sources, lack of clarity or sensitivity or lack of information and different ways of quantifying and qualifying the information make it challenging to have a complete picture and to compare between the different sectors. For example, it was not always clear if the estimated annual turnover referred only to FCMs or to the total annual turnover of a material or article sector.

Printing Inks

Printing inks are used primarily on food packaging to give information to the consumer about the food product or for marketing purposes. Different types of inks are used including low migration ultra-violet (UV) curing inks, low migration electron beam (EB) curing inks, conventional oleo-resinous inks, and low migration water-based coatings. Food packaging inks consist of a combination of colourants, binders, solvents, and additives, utilising in excess of 5 000 different chemical substances.

FCMs Chemicals sectors and intermediate materials - printing inks in European countries

Printing inks are used in combination with many other different types of materials, including paper and board, plastics and multimaterial finished articles where the packaged goods are in prolonged direct contact with the non-printed side of the packaging material. Other types of packaging may involve an inner-wrap so that the printed material is not in direct contact with the contents. Most printing inks are therefore not intended to be in direct contact with the food, however physical or gas-phase migration of substances into the food can still occur.

The European Printing Ink Association (EuPIA) represents 13 national organisations comprising 117 member companies in the following countries:

Austria (FCIÖ)

Belgium (IVP)

Denmark (DFL)

Finland (PVY)

France (AFEI)

Germany (VdL)

 

 Greece (Hellenic Coatings Association)

Italy (AVISA)

Netherlands (VVVF)

Spain (ASEFAPI)

Sweden (SVEFF)

Switzerland (VSLF)

United Kingdom (BCF)

Suppliers to the printing ink industry are mainly EU chemical industries, including substance manufacturers and raw material producers, for example pigment manufacturers, resin manufacturers, wax manufacturers and solvent manufacturers. Printing ink manufacturers themselves are ‘manufacturers of non-plastic intermediate materials’. IP-Europe members supply the printing industry. The ink industry supplies its products to the manufacturers of final FCM materials and articles (printers and converters), for example, manufacturers of plastic, metal or paperboard FCM or articles.

As regards the distribution of different sized enterprises, 10 % of the members are large companies, 31 % are medium-sized enterprises, 49 % are small enterprises and 10 % are micro enterprises (Figure 5).

Figure 5: Approximate distribution of different types of enterprises represented by EuPIA producing printing inks in European countries

Figure 5: Approximate distribution of different types of enterprises represented by EuPIA producing printing inks in European countries

The total market for inks in 2014 was estimated at EUR 3.5 billion or 1 100 000 tonnes, of which packaging inks accounted for EUR 1.7 billion or 400 000 tonnes — much of the rest accounting for publication inks. EuPIA members have an estimated annual turnover of about EUR 1.3 billion in food contact, which constitutes about 90 % of the market. Large, medium-sized, small and micro companies account for 80 %, 14 %, 5 % and 1 %, respectively, of the overall annual turnover of EUR 3.5 billion. As no data were available for the FCM portion, it is assumed that the same distribution is true for the estimated sales for food packaging inks, i.e. EUR 1.3 billion (Figure 6).

Figure 6: Approximate estimated annual turnover of different types of enterprises represented by EuPIA producing printing inks in Europe for FCMs (total estimated at EUR 1.3 billion)

Figure 6: Approximate estimated annual turnover of different types of enterprises represented by EuPIA producing printing inks in Europe for FCMs (total estimated at EUR 1.3 billion)

The total market for inks in 2014 was estimated at EUR 3.5 billion or 1 100 000 tonnes, of which packaging inks accounted for EUR 1.7 billion or 400 000 tonnes — much of the rest accounting for publication inks. EuPIA members have an estimated annual turnover of about EUR 1.3 billion in food contact, which constitutes about 90 % of the market. Large, medium-sized, small and micro companies account for 80 %, 14 %, 5 % and 1 %, respectively, of the overall annual turnover of EUR 3.5 billion. As no data were available for the FCM portion, it is assumed that the same distribution is true for the estimated sales for food packaging inks, i.e. EUR 1.3 billion (Figure 6).

The Imaging and Printing Association Europe (I&P Europe) is a European association of product manufacturers and technology providers for the imaging and printing industry, and therefore also represents the printing inks industry. I&P Europe represents 25 companies, of which 19 (76 %) are large enterprises, five (20 %) are medium-sized enterprises and one (4 %) is a small enterprise. The large companies account for almost 100 % of the annual turnover. For digital printing related to food packaging, the percentage is in the single digits. For varnishes and other coating materials, food contact applications account for up to 30 %.

Ion exchange (and adsorbent) resins

The main applications of ion exchange resins and adsorbents are in processing liquid feed streams, and typically they are used as a fixed bed contained in a pressure vessel. In some applications they are used in combination with different ion exchangers and adsorbents. Ion exchangers and adsorbents protect equipment and machinery against scale and corrosion and remove unwanted contaminants from process waters. Most synthetic ion exchangers are manufactured with a polystyrenic or polyacrylic structure, with a cross-linking agent that helps form the bead structure and makes the resin insoluble in a wide range of liquids. There is a wide range of ion exchangers, some with specialised functional groups to achieve the targeted removal of specific ions. The majority of applications in the areas of drinking water or food production use standard resins, with either strong or weak acid functionality or weak or strong base functionality.

The organisation Synthetic Organic Ion Exchangers and Adsorbents (SOIA) represents the leading European manufacturers of ion exchange resins and adsorbents. SOIA is a sector group of CEFIC and the industry contact point for regulatory matters impacting ion exchange resins, in particular in food processing and potable water applications. No information related to trade data on FCM was received.

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