FCMs – Rubbers and elastomers
Besides plastics, rubber plays a vital role in the plastics and rubber industry. Rubber falls into two broad types: natural rubber (latex from plants) and synthetic rubber synthesised using petrochemicals. Vulcanisation is often used as a chemical process by which the physical properties of natural or synthetic rubber are improved; finished rubber has higher tensile strength and resistance to swelling and abrasion, and is elastic over a greater range of temperatures. In its simplest form, vulcanisation is achieved by heating rubber with sulphur. Rubber articles are flexible, resilient, mechanically strong and durable. Rubber materials are used in contact with food for applications mainly associated with food processing/handling. The main food contact applications are conveyer belts, hoses, tubing, rotating transport rollers and rolling mills, handling applications such as gloves, machinery components such as seals and gaskets, general seals used in machinery and storage vessels, sealants for cans and bottles, teats for baby feeding and household appliances including seals in pressure cookers.
The European Tyre and Rubber Manufacturer Association ETRMA represents seven national associations in Belgium, Germany, Spain, France, Italy, the Netherlands and Finland, along with corporate members. ETRMA states that its primary objective is to represent the regulatory and related interests of the European tyre and rubber manufacturers at both European and international levels. The International Institute of Synthetic Rubber Producers IISRP is also an international non-profit trade association with more than 50 producers/members in 23 countries worldwide.
With regard to the supply chain, ETRMA’s suppliers are chemical manufacturers. ETRMA supplies both finished and semi-finished products (such as seals) to industry, distributors, retailers and final users. IISRP’s suppliers are substance manufacturers (manufacturers or suppliers of monomers, additives, catalysts, fillers, polymer production aids, packaging and equipment manufacturers, etc.); their converters are the manufacturers of final rubber material and articles, for example tyres and tyre products, wire and cable coating, adhesives and sealants, footwear and elastomeric roofing membranes and bitumen modification. No information specifically on the use of rubber in FCMs was available from the commercial databases used. According to ETRMA, the annual production of general rubber goods was around 2.6 million tonnes in 2013. General rubber products are mainly used in non-food sectors such as the automotive and transport industries, household appliances and industrial applications. The food contact, drinking water and baby care/medical devices sector represents only 4-5 %.
The annual turnover for the general rubber goods sector, excluding tyres and imports, is in the region of EUR 18 billion, with the FCM sector a small proportion of that, i.e. possibly in the region of EUR 500 million.
ETRMA state that the distribution of the size of enterprises is estimated as 2 % of the members being large companies and 98 % being SMEs, many of which are micro enterprises (Figure 1).
The membership of ETRMA represents c.80 % of the sector’s enterprises. Large, medium-sized, small and micro companies account for 50 %, 15 %, 25 % and 10 %, respectively, of the annual turnover. IISRP producers represent more than 80 % of global synthetic rubber capacity. Large and medium-sized companies account for 57 % and 43 %, respectively, of the annual turnover (Figure 2). Production is 2 450 200 tonnes (in production capacity), with FCM representing 10-15 % in the EU.
FCMs – Silicones
Silicones are polymers that include any inert, synthetic compound made up of repeating units of siloxane, which is a chain of alternating silicon atoms and oxygen atoms, frequently combined with carbon and/or hydrogen. They are typically heat resistant and rubber like, and are used in sealants, adhesives, lubricants, medicine and thermal and electrical insulation. Silicone is used in the cookware industry, particularly for bakeware and kitchen utensils such as baking or freezing moulds, bottle teats, oven gloves, spatulas, sippy cups, food containers, steamers, egg boilers or poachers, cookware lids, pot holders, trivets and kitchen mats.
CES — Silicones Europe is a non-profit trade organisation representing all major manufacturers of starting materials and importers. It has six members, which are all large enterprises. All silicone producers located in Europe are members of CEFIC-CES and they represent 100 % of the market. Total sales of silicones in Europe are estimated at EUR 2.5 billion a year. accounting for around 10 000 jobs. It is not known what proportion of this is FCM but it is likely to be relatively small. No distribution was available across sizes of enterprises.
In terms of the supply chain, CEFIC-CES members are producers of silicone starting materials. Customers are any downstream users or converters of such materials, supplying to all sectors manufacturing FCMs and typically intermediate manufacturers. In some cases the raw materials are supplied directly to the final converter.
FCMs – Food cutlery, kitchenware cookware and equipment
The Federation of the European cutlery, flatware, holloware and cookware industries FEC represents these different sectors across Europe. In relation to FCMs, this includes kitchen and professional knives, metallised flatware and holloware including stainless steel and metallised cookware such as cake moulds and miscellaneous household items including coffee makers, kitchen gadgets and party utensils. Its professional associations or companies are established in Belgium, Croatia, Denmark, France, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands and Switzerland. Most of the national associations and members are involved in all four sectors. There are 76 active members of FEC and 25-40 members that are partially active or inactive. According to FEC, more than 50 % of its members’ activities are related to culinary products such as pots and pans, cutlery and serveware (forks, spoons, knives, etc.) made of different metals as a base material. A significant percentage of companies sell tableware such as plates, cups and drinking utensils made of different materials such as stone, ceramics, porcelain and glass or specific products such as salt and peppermills or coffee and tea pots. According to FEC, the distribution of the size of enterprises shows that approximately 90 % of the active members are producing only for food contact. FEC members include 15 % large enterprises, 35 % medium-sized and 50 % small (Figure 3).
Large, medium-sized and small companies account for 50 %, 30 % and 20 %, respectively, of the annual turnover (Figure 4).
About 15 % of the large companies, 30 % of the medium-sized and 50 % of the small enterprises are not members of FEC.
With regard to actors in the supply chain, FEC suppliers are the most diverse companies, and include steel and stainless steel manufacturers, non-ferro suppliers, raw materials for stoneware, ceramics, porcelain, glass/sand, wood, plastics, coatings for surface treatments, including non-stick, silicones, adhesives, tool/machine suppliers etc.
The European Committee of Domestic Equipment Manufacturers CECED represents the household appliance manufacturing industry. Its member companies are mainly based in Europe. CECED’s member associations cover the majority of European countries, along with Turkey and Russia, and it also has a number of direct member companies. CECED members produce appliances such as refrigerators, freezers, ovens and toasters, along with heating, ventilation and cleaning appliances. The total annual turnover of the industry in Europe is EUR 48 billion (2013), although it is not known what proportion of this is relevant to FCMs. Large members cover about 80 % of the turnover, while medium-sized members cover about 95 % of the market. With regard to the supply chain, CECED suppliers are producers of plastic materials, metal and alloys, wood, enamel/ceramic, coatings, glass, multilayer materials, silicone rubbers, paper, inks and ion-exchange resins. CECED supplies end users through wholesellers’ chains.
The European Vending Association EVA is a not-for-profit organisation that represents the interests of around 80 % of the European coffee service and vending industry. The EVA has 14 national vending associations and 76 companies as members. FCMs included in the vending machines include internal water pipes, product canisters, coffee canisters, grinders, mixing bowls and disposables (including cups), and in total are estimated to make up around 40 % of machine parts. EVA indicates there are 3.8 million machines in Europe, representing an annual turnover of EUR 11.3 billion, with 75 % of machines located in the workplace and 25 % in public locations. Around 60 % of the market is hot beverage machines, 17 % is for cold drinks and 23 % is glass-front snack machines. EVA estimates a distribution of around 50 % SMEs and 50 % large companies.
Other materials that need to satisfy FCMs
The International Technical Centre for Bottling and related Packaging CETIE is a professional association that publishes technical reference documents for bottling in the food and beverage, cosmetics and perfumes, and pharmaceutical sectors. No data related to FCMs was found or received. The World Association of Manufacturers of Bottles and Teats WBT has 15 members and covers about 80 % of the market. 1 % are large enterprises and the rest are medium-sized companies. Around 67 % is relevant for FCMs. WBT suppliers are manufacturers of plastic raw materials or finished articles or of elastomer. WBT members supply finished products to wholesale retail/supermarkets, pharmacies, baby shops and directly to consumers (internet sales).
Euratex is the European Apparel and Textile Confederation representing the interests of the European textile and clothing industry. Euratex member federations represent some 174 000 companies in the EU with a turnover of EUR 162 billion. The EU is the second largest world exporter of textiles and clothing, with extra-EU exports reaching 28 % in 2014. No information was available on relevance to FCMs.
EDANA is the international association serving the nonwovens and related industries. Member companies produce everything from raw materials to finished products, including roll goods (nonwovens, films, laminates and composites), converters (including absorbent hygiene products, medical, wipes, filtration, construction, automotive), chemicals/polymers (including binders, SAP, treatments), fibres and filaments. EDANA unifies over 240 member companies along the supply chain. No data related to FCMs was found or received.
The European Association of Craft, Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises Ueapme is the European SME umbrella organisation. It incorporates around 80 member organisations from 34 countries consisting of national cross-sectorial SME federations, European branch federations and other associate members, which support the SME family. Ueapme represents more than 12 million enterprises across Europe. No information related to trade details on FCM was available or received.
The trade and industry group Normpack has around 200 members representing all production stages in the value chain, including producers of raw materials and final FCMs, the food industry and wholesale/retail. The Normpack system is based on self-assessment, helping its members to take the legal responsibility for FCMs. This help is provided in the form of advice, training and various tools and guides for interpreting regulations. The Normpack Norm is the framework for Normpack’s operations. The standard has been developed in collaboration with the member companies and relevant authorities, and is based on Swedish and EU legislation. Warenwet (Netherlands), BfR (Germany) and FDA (United States) regulations are also applied. Around 70 % are large companies and 30 % are medium-sized enterprises.